Internal Security Challenges In India

Anish Bachchan
6 min readFeb 17, 2021


In the current millennia, India is facing various challenges whether internal or external. In the case of external, she is facing nuclear countries like Pakistan and China, as well as foreign terrorist organizations. However she is facing various challenges inside the countries. These challenges are not only hindering India’s developmental progress but is threatening its own security. Following the deadly clash with the China on June 2020 which claimed the lives of 20 Indian soldiers[1], various questions are being raised towards the security issues of the country whether internal or external. And in a time where the TRP vultures of TV media and Social Media often makes things more complicated and starts misusing Section 124A (Sedition Law)[2] against those who have little bit of critique against the government rather than actually focusing on the actual issues, it is unfortunate that people couldn’t rely on the very media that was suppose to provide information regarding the issues that has affected the country like a rotten cancer. This article will focus on the internal challenges of security in India.

Current Challenges

1. The Kashmir Insurgency[3]- The Troubles in Northern Ireland[4] does not hold a candle against the ongoing Kashmir Insurgency. Although it had its roots in 1947 following the bloody Partition of India[5], the whole insurgency started to erupt in the late 1980s. The wars with Pakistan has added salt in the injury, not to mention the insurgency against the Indian security forces. The clash between the insurgents and the security forces has claimed the lives of many soldiers and civilians who got caught up in the crossfire. The situation got even escalated following the Pulwama and Uri attacks which claimed the lives of 40 soldiers[6] and 18[7] soldiers respectively[8]. And with the Special Status of Jammu and Kashmir removed, it is feared that situation could get worse.[9]

2. The North East Insurgency-Following the independence, there were various revolts broke out in states like Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya and Meghalaya due to linguistic and ethnic reasons. In the current era, following factors like-

i. Alienation and Deprivation among the tribal population.

ii. Instability in Myanmar.

iii. Widespread Corruption

iv. Lack of Leadership among tribal groups

v. Easy access to arms and ammunition

vi. Disconnection with the other parts of India etc.

Are the factors for the current ethnic and communal clash in the North East.[10]

3. The Naxal Insurgency[11]- The Naxals are communist and maoist insurgents that operate in states like Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. They claim to represent the poor which consists of Dalits and Tribal people. They mostly adhere to Maoist doctrine and often resolve to guerrilla warfare against landlord, business people, politicians and security forces by disrupting their transportation, communication, power lines and so on. They act mostly in the jungle areas and have become a hindrance for the security forces. Because of this ongoing conflict many civilians, Naxalillites and soldiers lost their lives.[12]

4. Religious Conflicts- Just like the sectarian violence between Catholics and Protestants in Norther Ireland during the troubles[13], there has been a huge communal conflicts between the various religious communities in India. Although it existed even before the Independence, the problem of communalism started to rise following the Fall of Babri Mosque[14] and the Bombay Riots in 1992–93[15]. Hindu-Muslim relations have soured since then. And the conflict between the 2 communities in the aftermath and cinders of the Gujarat riots in 2002[16], new problems arose like the protest against the new Citizenship Amendment Act 2019[17] and the 2020 North Delhi riots[18] have reignited the communal tension which could be a problem for the people in the country.

5. Terrorism- In the post 9/11[19] world, terrorism has become a major problem in today’s world stage. People are needlessly killed in the name of ideology and religion. Terrorism in India is no exception. In the aftermath of 26/11 attacks[20], people started to view terrorism as a danger to be reckon with. No one knows which city will be attacked by any terrorist organization. Nevertheless counter terrorist forces like NSG[21], MARCOS[22], PARA SF[23] and GARUD COMMANDO Force[24] have grown exponentially in order to deal with this disease of a problem.

6. Other Challenges-

i. Caste based violence- The Hathras rape case is the example of the caste based violence.[25]

ii. Money Laundering- The Harshad Mehta[26], The Vijay Mallaya case[27], The Sahara Case[28] and the Nirav Modi Case[29] are the examples of money laundering.

iii. Organized Crime

iv. Regionalism and Inter-State dispute

v. Border management

vi. Coastal Security

vii. Cyber Crime


1. Framing of counter strategic programme against security threats like terrorism, extremism, Naxalism and insurgency by the National Security Council and the Cabinet Committee.

2. The long pending police reforms must be finalized and it should be made simplified and people-friendly.

3. The improvement of Narcotics Control Bureau to fight against Organized Crime families and Cartels. (Prevention of Drugs)

4. Prevention of money laundering and economic offences through the effective working of Central Economic Intelligence Bureau.

5. Few organizations and people that fund extremists must be held accountable.

6. Strengthening of Coastal Security.[30]

7. Encouragement of people to learn about the constitution and secularism in order to tackle communalism and castism and these carnages should be dealt strictly.[31][32]

8. Awareness and measures to be taken against cyber crime.[33]


India is facing those problems in the current time and these issues have to be dealt with as soon as she can otherwise it could affect her progress as well as her development. People should be aware about the current challenges the country is facing and they have to help the government in implementing laws that could prevent and deal such challenges. Thus it is important that the country’s safety must be given a priority and at the same time the sentiments and morality of the citizens should not be harmed.

[1] Violent India-China clash at LAC: What really happened that night — India News (

[2] Law of sedition in India — Sec 124A of the Indian Penal Code — iPleaders

[3] Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir | Military Wiki | Fandom (

[4] the Troubles | Summary, Causes, & Facts | Britannica

[5] The Partition of India and Creation of Pakistan (

[6] Pulwama attack: Pulwama attack story, latest news, photos, videos & top stories (

[7] Uri Attack: News, Photos, Latest News Headlines about Uri Attack — The Indian Express

[8] ‘Third Mistake After Uri and Pulwama Will Cost Them Dearly’, PM Modi Warns Pakistan |

[9] Article 370 For Jammu And Kashmir Special Status Scrapped. Read Notification (

[10] Insurgency in the North-East India | Essay (

[11] naxalism today (

[12] Naxalite | Indian communist groups | Britannica

[13] How the Troubles began: a timeline (

[14] EXPLAINED: Babri Masjid Demolition Case & All You Need To Know About It Ahead Of CBI Court Verdict (

[15] 25 years of Bombay riots: How the mayhem changed a city and its people forever — FYI News (

[16] New trend? Riots ‘expanded’ to new rural areas post-2002 Gujarat carnage: Report — Kashmir Times

[17] Explained | CAA protests: What does the law say about detention of minors? — The Hindu

[18] What is Delhi Riots 2020, Delhi Violence, North East Delhi Riots, Delhi News | Business Standard (

[19] September 11 attacks | History, Summary, Timeline, Casualties, & Facts | Britannica

[20] Mumbai Terror Attacks: What Happened On 26/11? (

[21] National Security Guard — Wikipedia

[22] MARCOS — Wikipedia

[23] Para (Special Forces) — Wikipedia

[24] Garud Commando Force — Wikipedia

[25] Hathras Gang-rape Timeline: What Has Happened So Far (

[26] The Harshad Mehta case: Where time has overtaken justice by a mile — The Economic Times (

[27] What is Vijay Mallya money laundering case? — The Financial Express

[28] Factbox: Money laundering probe into Sahara — Business

[29] PNB money laundering case: Nirav Modi’s sister, brother-in-law turn approver — Oneindia News

[30] India’s internal security-challenges & solutions (

[31] B0312010507.pdf (

[32] Casteism: Meaning, Causes, Solution and Suggestion (

[33] Cybercrime — Definition, Types, Statistics, Impact, Solutions (



Anish Bachchan

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